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Manner of Bosch, Hieronymus (Netherlandish painter and draftsman, ca. 1450-1516) , Christ Driving the Money-lenders from the Temple

Core Record

Title Christ Driving the Money-lenders from the Temple
Collection Culture and Sport Glasgow (Museums): Kelvingrove Museum
Artist Manner of Bosch, Hieronymus (Netherlandish painter and draftsman, ca. 1450-1516)
Date Earliest probably about 1550
Date Latest probably about 1600

In the centre of a crowded and fantastical composition, within an elaborate and extraordinary temple construction with a plant-like pinnacle to its roof, stands the figure of Christ, a halo round his head, raising a flail at a cowering figure. Various other groups of figures can be seen outside the temple: to the left, a tooth-drawer and patient, and a mother and chilled by a fire; to the right, a figure riding a cow, etc; and in front, reclining men and women, and sheep. A rolling landscape, peppered with exotic buildings, stretches back to the high horizon.

Although this painting has a signature and is in the style of Hieronymous Bosch, it was probably painted in the late sixteenth century, long after the artist's death. Bosch's 'hallmarks' are here - the fantastical architectural details, the haunting, caricature-like figures of peasants - but these are not convincingly original creations when compared to Brueghel's equivalents. The work can be seen as an attempt to capitalise on Bosch's successful style. Whether this was carried out as an experiment, as a student exercise or as a forgery is unknown, but in view of the signature the third possibility cannot be ruled out.

Current Accession Number 1586
Inscription front lr 'Iheronimus bosche'
Subject religion (Christ Driving the Money-lenders from the Temple)
Measurements 77.7 x 60 cm.0 cm (estimate)
Material oil on panel (hardwood)
Acquisition Details Bequeathed by Sir Claude Phillips 1924.
Provenance Sir Claude Phillips (1846-1924), by 1902.
Principal Exhibitions Exposition de Tableaux Flamandes de XIVe, Xve et XVIe siècles, Bruges, 1902, cat. no. 355, from Phillips collection; Between Renaissance and Baroque: European Art 1520-1600, Manchester City Art Galleries, Manchester, 1965, cat. no. 43.
Publications Hulin de Loo, G., Exposition de Tableaux Flamandes de XIVe, Xve et XVIe siécles: Catalogue critique, Bruges, 1902, no. 355, p. 99, as by an imitator of Bosch; Friedländer, M. J., 'Die Brügger Leihausstellung von 190', Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft, vol. 26, 1903, p. 168, as a good imitation or an old copy of an otherwise unknown composition by Bosch; Gossart, M. G., La Peinture de Diableries à la fin du moyen-âge. Jérôme Bosch , le 'faizeur de Dyables' de Bois-le-Duc, Lille, 1907, p. 288; Cohen, W., in Thieme, U. and F. Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künste, 1907-50, vol. 4, 1910, under Bosch, as a copy of a lost work; Lafond, P., Hieronymus Bosch : son art, son influence, ses disciples, Brussels, 1914, p. 50, no. 15., pl. 28, as an old copy of a lost original; Conway, M., The Van Eycks and their Followers, London, 1921, p. 345, as designed, but not executed by Bosch; Friedländer, M. J., Die altniederländische Malerei, Leiden, vol. 5, 1927, no. 74 b, under Bosch; Glück, G., Bruegels Gemälde, Vienna, 1932, p. 48 (English edition, 1952, p. 37), as a copy of part of the picture attributed to Pieter Bruegel at Copenhagen; Friedländer, M. J., 'Pieter Bruegels Uddrivelsen af Templet: Skaenket Kunstmuseet af ny Carlsbergfondet', Kunstmuseets Aarskrift, vol. 19, Copenhagen, 1932, pp. 6-8, repr.; Bax, D., Ontcijfering van Jeroen Bosch, 's-Gravenhage, 1949, p.323, as by an imitator; Dutch and Flemish Netherlandish and German Paintings, Glasgow Art Gallery and Museums, 1961, vol. 1, text, pp. 30-31; vol. 2, illustrations, p. 4, as by an 'Imitator of Hieronymus Bosch'.

The panel appears to have been reduced at both sides.

A small label on back, photographed and removed in 1987 as conservation work was: 'OIL PAINTING/ No. 28/Staircase/Allegorical Subject/by Jer.o Bosch'; inscription in pencil on back '706[;]7I'.

This painting is a free variant of a picture with the same title in the Royal Museum of Copenhagen (inv. no. 3924) which is included in C. de Tolnay, Hieronymus Bosch, London, 1966, under 'disputed works' (no. 59, p. 385), as a pastiche of elements from Brueghel and Bosch; the latter painting has also been attributed to Pieter Brueghel.

Rights Owner Culture and Sport Glasgow (Museums)
Author Dr Heiner Krellig and Robert Wenley



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