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 Master of Moulins (Painter, probably Netherlandish, active 1480-1504 in France) , St Maurice with a Donor

Core Record

Title St Maurice with a Donor
Alternative Title St Victor with a Donor; St George and Donor; Francois de Chateaubriand Commended by St. Maurice; St Lythardus
Collection Culture and Sport Glasgow (Museums): Kelvingrove Museum
Artist Master of Moulins (Painter, probably Netherlandish, active 1480-1504 in France)
Attributed to Goes, Hugo van der (early Netherlandish painter, ca.1440-1482)
Attributed to Gossaert, Jan (Flemish painter, ca. 1478-1532)
Attributed to Perréal, Jean (French painter, ca.1455-ca.1530)
Attributed to Eyck, Jan van (Netherlandish painter, ca.1390-1441)
Attributed to Fouquet, Jean (French painter, born ca. 1415-1420, died before 1481)
Attributed to Bruyn, Bartholomaeus, the elder (German painter, 1493-1555)
Attributed to Memling, Hans (early Netherlandish painter, ca.1433-1494)
Attributed to Bourdichon, Jean (French illuminator, ca. 1457 - 1521), and studio
Attributed to Clouet, Jean (South Netherlandish artist, probably born ca. 1485, died 1540 or 1541, active in France)
Attributed to Hey, Jean (Netherlandish painter, active ca.1480-ca.1504, active in France)
Date Earliest possibly about 1480
Date Latest possibly about 1500
Description

Painted, it is believed, in the Bourbon area of central France in or near the town of Moulins, the history of this panel is unknown until it was acquired by the Glasgow coachbuilder and art collector Archibald McLellan in the 19th century.

It was evidently once part of a two-part folding altarpiece, or diptych, the left wing of which showed the Virgin Mary with the infant Christ. A warrior saint, wearing armour and holding a lance, presents a richly dressed churchman to the Virgin.

If we knew the man's name we could identify his patron saint. The very rare works of the Master of Moulins are known by their stylistic similarity to the large altarpiece in Moulins Cathedral, and are Flemish in style, with the colouring of stained glass.

Current Accession Number 203
Subject figure; religion (St Maurice)
Measurements 58.4 x 49.5 cm cm (estimate)
Material oil on panel
Acquisition Details Bequeathed by Archibald McLellan 1854.
Principal Exhibitions Exhibition of Pictures by Masters of the Netherlandish and Allied Schools of XV and Early XVI Centuries, Burlington Fine Arts Club, London, 1892, cat. no. 17 as by Van der Goes; Exhibition of Masters of the Flemish and British Schools, New Gallery, London, 1899, as by Van der Goes; Exposition des Primitifs Flamands et l'Art Ancien, Bruges, 1902, as by Unknown Master; Exposition des Primitifs Francais, Paris, 1904, as by Master of Moulins; Exhibition of Early Flemish Art, Guildhall, London, 1906, as by Van der Goes; Loan Exhibition of Flemish and Belgian Art, Royal Academy, London, 1927, cat. no. 67, as by Van der Goes; Exhibition of French Art, 1200-1900, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1932, cat. no. 68, as by Master of Moulins; French Art Exhibition, Manchester, 1932, as by Master of Moulins; Heraldic Exhibition, Birmingham Art Gallery, 1936, as by Master of Moulins; Chefs d'Oeuvre de l'Art Francais, Paris, 1937, as by Master of Moulins; Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Art, London, 1962, cat. no. 15; Jan Van Eyck, Early Netherlandish Painting and the European South, 1430-1530, Groening Museum, Bruges, 2002, cat. no. 72
Publications Parton, James, 'Portion of an Altar-Piece - St. George and Donor by Mabuse' Scottish Art Review, vol. 1, no. 9, February, 1889, p. 242; Armstrong, W., Exhibition of Pictures by Masters of the Netherlandish and Allied Schools of XV and Early XVI Centuries, Burlington Fine Arts Club, London, 1892, p. 9, cat. no. 17; Leprieur, P., 'Correspondance de l'Angleterre' Gazette des Beaux Arts, 1892, pp. 173-174; Claude, P., 'Old Masters at the Royal Academy' The Academy, vol. 1, 1893, p. 64; Claude, P., 'Old Masters at the Royal Academy' The Academy, vol. 1, 1896, p. 81; Friedlander, M., Repertorium fur Kunstwissenschaft, vol. 24, 1900, pp. 245-259; Fry, R., The Northern Counties Magazine, 1900 and 1901; Benoit, C., 'La Peinture Francaise à la fin du XVe Siècle' Gazette des Beaux-Arts, vol. 26, 1901, pp. 368-373; Vauloger, Rene de, 'La Peinture Francais à la fin du XVe Siècle' Chronique des Arts, 1902, pp. 131-2, 147-8, 154-6; Benoit, C. 'A Propos de la Peinture Primitive en France et en Hollande' Chronique des Arts, 1902, p. 181; Reinach, S., 'Encore Le Panneau de Glasgow' Chronique des Arts, 1902, pp. 231-2; Hymans, H., 'L'Exposition des Primitifs Flamands à Bruges' Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1904, vol. 5, p. 368; Bouchot, H., Catalogue de l'Exposition des Primitifs Francais, 1904, pp.. 126-7; Fry, R., 'The Exhibition of French Primitives' Burlington Magazine, vol. 5, 1904, p. 368; Lafenestre, G. 'L'Exposition des Primitifs Francais' Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1904, pp. 126-7; Flamand, 'Early Netherlandish Pictures in the Winter Exhibition' The Connoisseur, vol. 9, 1904, pp. 43-44; Elliot, L., 'The Primitive French Exhibition at Paris' The Connoisseur, vol. 10, 1904, pp. 36-39; Weale, W. H. J., 'Netherlandish Art at the Guildhall' The Burlington Magazine, vol. 9, 1906, p. 185; Catalogue, Descriptive and Historical, of the Pictures in the Glasgow Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, 1911, pp. 82-83, no. 375; Bibby, J. 'Saint Victor with a Donor' Bibby's Annual, 1921, p. 31; Loan Exhibition of Flemish and Belgian Art, Burlington House, London, 1927, p. 31, cat. no. 67; Fry, R., 'Flemish Art at Burlington House', The Burlington Magazine, vol. 50, 1927, p. 68; Jamot, P., 'More notes on the Flemish Exhibition' Burlington Magazine, vol. 51, 1927, p. 20; Demonts, L., 'L'Exposition d'Art Flamand à la Royal Academy' Gazette des Beaux-Arts, vol. 15, 1927, p. 276; Dimier, L., Les Primitifs Francais, 1928, p. 108; Kaines-Smith, S. C., An Outline History of Painting in Europe to the End of the XIXth Century, 1930, p. 96; Barnes, A. C., and Mazia, Violette de, The French Primitives and their Forms, 1931, pp. 434-9; Jamot, P., 'French Paintings', The Burlington Magazine, vol. 59, 1931, pp. 307-8; Exhibition of French Art, 1200-1900, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1932, pp. 36-37 cat. no. 68; Commemorative Catalogue of the Exhibition of French Art, 1200-1900, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1932, p. 10, cat. no. 29; Cox, T., 'A Last View of the French Exhibition' The Connoisseur, vol. 89-90, March 1932, p. 150; Kaines-Smith, S. C., The Painters of France, 1932, pp. 5-10; Beard, C. R., 'New Lamps for Old at Burlington House' The Connoisseur, vol. 89, 1932, p. 157; Loo, G. H. de, Bulletin de la Classe des Beaux-Arts de l'Academie Royale de Belgique, 1932, pp. 62-3; Jamot, P. Peinture Francais, 1934, p. 66; Mann, J. G., 'A Crossbow of the Good King René' The Connoisseur, vol. 93, 1934, p. 235; Catalogue, Descriptive and Historical, of the pictures in the Glasgow Art Galleries and Museums, 1935, pp. 203-204, no. 203; Eggleton, J., Glasgow's Art Galleries and Museums, a Commentary by James Eggleton, 1936, pp. 39-40; Wilenski, R. H., French Painting, 1937, p. 20; Ring, G., A Century of French Painting, 1400-1500, Phaidon, London, 1949, p. 238, ill. p. 237, cat. no. 301; Rey-Coquai, J.P., Le Maitre de Moulins, Lyon, 1951, ill. p. 2; Scottish Art Review, vol. 6, no. 3, 1957, ill. p. 20; Châtelet, A., 'A Plea for the Master of Moulins' Burlington Magazine, vol. 104, no. 116, December 1962, pp. 519-524; Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Art, London, 1962, cat. no. 15; Sterling, C. 'Du nouveau fur le Maitre de Moulins' L'Oeuil, no. 107, November 1963, pp. 2-15; Wells, W., 'Abbot Nicaise de l'Oreme and Jean Perreal - Glasgow's Master of Moulins Reconsidered' Apollo, vol. 113, no. 235, September 1981, pp. 148-115; The Benedictine Monks of St Augustine's Abbey, The Book of Saints London, 1989; Borchert, Till-Holger (ed.), The Age of Van Eyck: The Mediterranean World and Early Netherlandish Painting, 1430-1530, Bruges, 2002, cat. no. 72; Châtelet, A., Jean Prevost, Le Maitre de Moulins, p. 95, 176-7, ill. no. 55, Paris, 2001; Snyder, J., Northern Renaissance Art, Prentice Hall Inc, New Jersey, 2005, ill. p. 231, pl. 11.27
Notes

Blue bordered label on back of panel inscribed in ink: '19'.

Six x-ray photographs were taken of the painting in 1962. Further x-rays in 1982 revealed overpainting in the sky to the left of the lance. An infra-red reflectogram showed that changes had been made from the underdrawing to the design of the Saint's belt and shield. Analysis under ultra-violet light revealed several small retouches.

A possible companion piece, a Procession to Cavalry with a similar hilly background was found in the stores of the Chicago Art Institute in 2004.

Walter Armstrong suggested in 1892 that the piece was painted by Van der Goes. Camille Benoit in 1902, Hulon de Loo in 1902, Freidlander in 1925, van Puyvelds in 1970 and Wells in 1981 all attributed the painting to Jean Perréal (known as Jean de Paris). In 1892 the German scholars Schon and Bode attributed the painting to Van Eyck. Before 1890 the painting was attributed to Jan Gossaert (known as Mabuse). In the 1890s the painting was attributed to Fouquet. In 1927 Dr. F. Hesterman of Hamburg attributed the painting to Bartholomew Bruyn the Elder. In 1902 von Sedlitz attributed the painting to Memling. In 1961 Mlle Huillet d'Istyria suggested that the piece was by twelve different painters, the most prominent hand being that of Bourdichon, this attribution was discredited by Albert Châtelet in 1962. Charles Sterling in 1957, and Albert Châtelet in 1962 attributed the painting to Jean Prévost. Dr. M. Goldblatt attributed the work to Jean de Clouet on the basis of a faint small signature 'H A Y', at the apex of which is a small nail, forming in his opinion, a pictorial anagram for 'Clouet'. Jean de Paris or Jean de Hay (or Hey) is at present considered most likely to be the true identity of the Master of Moulins, according to Catherine Reynolds entry in the Grove Dictionary of Art, 1996.

Dennys Sutton in 1979, and William Wells in 1982, suggested that the donor might be Nicaise de Lorme, 33rd abbot of the abbey of Saint-Victor in Paris. In 1967 Professor Jose de Braganca suggested that the donor might be King René of Provence, or a member of the family of the Duke of Cleves. In 1932 Dr. Maurice Goldblatt suggested that the donor might be René of Anjou, King of Sicily or Charles of Anjou, his nephew. In 1962 Albert Châtelet suggested that the donor might be Francois de Chateaubriand, canon and later dean of the Cathedral of St. Maurice of Angers, d. 1535. Dr. F. Hesterman in 1927, and Udo Grote in 1992, suggested that the donor might be the Xanten Canon Sibert von Riswick. A note in the catalogue of the 1902 Burlington Exhibition suggests that Archibald McLellan had identified the Saint as St. Victor, this is also the opinion expressed in 1927 by Dr. F. Hesterman, in 1950 by Alex Sturrock and in 1982 by William Wells. In 1902 Huilin van Loo Identified the Saint as Maurice, this is also the opinion expressed in 1932 by Charles R. Beard and in 1962 by Albert Châtelet.

Rights Owner Culture and Sport Glasgow (Museums)
Author Vivien Hamilton
 

 

 

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