Learning Index >> Calligraphy: an education in letter form

Historical context
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Blackwell, L. Twentieth Century Type, Lawrence King, London 1992.

Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements of Typographic Style, Hartley & Marks, Vancouver 1992. A lucid and authoritative guide to typographic concepts, resources and traditions. Bringhurst is also a poet.

Carter, Sebastian. Twentieth Century Type Designers, Trefoil 1987. Goudy, Rogers, Koch, Dwiggins, Gill, Hammer, Morison, Mardersteig, van Krimpen, Trump, Blumenthal, Middleton, Tschichold, Wolpe, Excoffon, Zapf, Frutiger.

Cobden Sanderson, T. J. "The Book Beautiful", Ecce Mundus: Industrial Ideals and the Book Beautiful. London 1902. An eloquent argument for seeing calligraphy, type-design and typography as interconnected disciplines.

Dreyfus, John. "Emery Walker's 1888 lecture on "Letterpress Printing": A Reconstruction and a Reconsideration, Craft History One, Combined Arts 1988. This lecture was one of the key events in deciding the direction calligraphy and typography would take in Britain in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century.

Dreyfus, John. Morris and the printed book. A reconsideration of his views on type and book design in the light of later computer-aided techniques. William Morris Society, London 1989.

Gill, Eric. On Typography, Sheed & Ward, 2nd Edition, London 1936. Makes strong case for unjustified text. Suggests it is easier on the reading eye to preserve even spaces between letters and suffer the consequences -a slightly uneven right hand edge to the text block. Gill was one of Johnston's early students.

Kinross, R. Modern Typography, Hyphen Press, London 1992. Kinross is one of the clearest writers on typographical subjects and any work by him is invariably worth following up.

Lawson, A. Anatomy of a Typeface, Hamish Hamilton, David Godine, London and Boston 1990.

McLean, Ruari. Jan Tschichold: typographer, Godine, New York 1975. An account of the professional life of this influential typographer and calligrapher with extracts from his own writing and correspondence. Bibliography and usefully organised index.

Owens, L.T.J.H.Mason, Scholar Printer, Muller, London 1976. Surveys the working life and interests of this important figure in the pre-war printing trade, many quotations from his writings and diaries.

Sutton, J. and Bartram, A. An Atlas of Typeforms, Lund Humphries, London 1968. Of interest for its enlarged photographs of type in a developmental sequence, clearly showing the early dependence of type upon broad edged pen based forms and the subsequent influence of drawing on the development of type design.

Tschichold, Jan. The Form of the Book, Lund Humphries, London 1991. A series of essays on considerations in book design.

Tschichold, Jan. The New Typography, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles 1995. Although in the later half of his life Tschichold reverted to a classical approach to typographic design his earlier years were spent at the Bauhaus where he was one of the early codifiers of the many typographic experiments that took place there.

Zapf, Hermann. Hermann Zapf & his Design Philosophy, Society of Typographic Arts, Chicago 1989. Articles and lectures on calligraphy and contemporary developments in type design.

Zapf, Hermann. Some marginal notes on type design, MIT Press, Cambridge/Mass and London 1960 and 1970. A revised edition of the Typophile Chap Book No.37. The notes on type design are arranged in an autobiographical form and include many annotated illustrations.

Prestianni, John, ed. Calligraphic Type Design in the Digital Age, Ginko Press, San Francisco 2001. A catalogue and Festschrift for Gudrun and Herman Zapf, selected type designs and calligraphy from sixteen designers.



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