Title: International review
Pages: 19 - 53
Text: International review
On the following 34 pages, DESIGN'S correspondents and others report on design developments in 15 countries overseas. Many correspondents belong to organisations whose purpose, like that of the ColD in Britain, is to promote the improvement of design standards in industry. Inevitably their reports are concerned with the success of these
efforts, particularly in countries where awareness of industrial design has emerged only in recent years. It is encouraging to see the remarkable progress they have made. Other countries, such as those in Scandinavia, whose achievements in the craft based industries have had an important influence on post war design throughout the world, have been less successful when extending their efforts to the engineering industries. All the reports show, however, that the next few years will see a rapidly growing discrimination among purchasers in both the private and public sectors abroad, and this must weigh seriously among our own producers who are seeking fresh outlets in the markets of the world.
Henri Vienot, head of the Technes industrial design office which was founded in 1948,and publisher and editor of Esthetique Industrielle since 1959. Has also worked as an efficiency consultant.
1 Plastics have been used throughout for the housing of this portable typewriter. Designer Technes. Maker Japy.
2 This unusual door catch has a plastics knob which is directly linked to the metal bolt The knob is also kept as flush as possible to the surface of the housing. Designer Technes. Maker Fichet.
3 This hydraulic excavator is the largest of a series of earth moving machines which has secured a European market for the manufacturer The excavator is notable for its clear, strictly utilitarian form Designer Technes. Maker Poclain.
France is not an advanced country from a design point of view, nor is it design minded. Although excellent designs can be found, most industrialists, as well as the government, have not yet understood the fundamental necessity of using industrial designers. The general feeling remains that the products should please the passer by, so that sales departments require superficial adornments that will attract the eye, and then everyone believes a novelty has been created. Only a few manufacturers are convinced that the product must satisfy the user from every point of view, and that its development should involve design research.
There are several reasons for this situation, including a lack of information about, and a shortage of promotional activities for, industrial design, as well as the deep feeling of every well bred French man that the rich artistic past of his ancestors makes him a man of good taste.
In order to discern the beginnings of a design evolution, one must consider capital goods separately from consumer goods. Of the latter, about 80 per cent are still based upon gimmicks aimed at creating an impression of cheap riches. The remainder are of a reasonable standard, although only half of these show a really creative and
In the field of capital or industrial equipment, the percentage of excellent design might be even smaller than for consumer goods, but for the fact that there are few cases of applied styling, so that the general level of design is less spoiled by unnecessary frills.
In these two fields, the attitude of major firms towards industrial designers is completely different. In consumer goods, it is the major firms which are most likely to have taken the trouble to consider using an industrial designer and who believe that 'good design pays'; while in heavy industry,
they are the ones which still believe that technique is the only thing which really matters, and that their position allows them to ignore the finer points of design because the customer will only consider the reputation of the firm and the reliability of the equipment. The situation could be summarised by saying that the only design minded managements in France are those which look for advanced solutions to advanced products. This may explain, for example, the reason why there is so little progress to be seen in Limoges china, where traditions remain entrenched, while producers of typewriters and machine tools
go ahead and open their doors to the kind of improvements that industrial design can bring.
4 The shape of this moulded plastics plug has been designed to give the user a good grip, and a place for his thumb when pushing the plug into position. Designer Technes. Maker Electricfil.
5 The two part injection-moulded body of this TCI portable transistor radio is separated by an anodised aluminium slide-up handle. The instrumentation has been reduced to the essentials. Battery changing is easily carried out and both front and rear panels are perforated, giving a good sound-quality for a mass-market transistor radio. Designer CEI-Raymond Loewy. Maker Claude.
6 This fork lift truck is the latest in a series of vehicles which are the result of 10 year's collaboration between the designer and maker. Like the hydraulic excavator on the previous page, the lines of its bodywork are straightforward and functional, and the maker's name is a detail which is welI in keeping with the rest of the truck. It won the Beaut6 Industrie award last year. Designer Technes. Maker Saleu.
7 Almost all electric toasters have vertical elements: here they have been turned on their side. Bread is toasted on both sides at once and ejected automaticalIy, and there is a control for the length of cooking. Designer Technes. Maker Noirot.
8 This low-cost, compact record player has a wooden case, which sets off the well-grouped surface controls. A plastics cover and additional speakers are provided as optional extras. Designer CEI-Raymond Loewy. Maker Claude.
9 These scales not only have a carpet - removable for cleaning-but also a carrying handle.Thedial read-out is magnified to make reading easier. Designer CEI-Raymond Loewy. Maker Terraillon.
10 This blow-moulded container successfully incorporates an integral handle while retaining a large frontal display surface.Graphicsaresilkscreened. Designer CEI-Raymond Loewy. Maker Cotelle & Foucher.
Josine des Cressonieres, administrative director of the design centre in Brussels and secretary general of ICSID.
There is no doubt that the use of industrial designers in Belgium is steadily gaining ground (and, in so doing, follows a trend noticeable throughout the world). This is shown in two ways: the growing recognition of design in official circles, and the penetration of designers into many more industrial enterprises.
An indication of this progress can be seen in the fact that CECA (the Coal and Steel European Community) included industrial design as the main theme of the congress which it held in October. Both the Belgian Institute of Industrial Design and ICSID co-operated in this meeting, and Misha Black was chairman of the session devoted to design. Other lecturers included Tomas Maldonado (Germany), Richard Latham (USA), Gino Valle (Italy), Henri Vienot (France), Sigvard Bernadote (Sweden), Carl Aubock (Austria) and llmari Tapiovaara (Finland). The congress also covered such subjects as the surface treatment of steel, modern methods and assembly techniques, and the cold forming of steel.
It is an unprecendented step for an organisation such as the CECA to consider, alongside the major technical problems of the industry, the imaginative and creative utilisation of steel.
Further examples of the official recognition of industrial design include the recent agreement binding the Belgian Institute of Industrial Design to the OBAP (the Belgian office for increasing productivity). This is indeed a novel recognition of an essential function of industrial design. An interview was also given by the Belgian Prime Minister to Pol Provost, president of the Belgian institute, in connection with the ICSID congress held in Vienna last September, when the premier promised to notify all the ministries which might be interested in the congress, in order to draw their attention to its importance.
A useful step was also taken by Europlastica in Ghent (the European fair for plastics materials), which created a first prize for design last October.
A series of weekly seminars on design has just been started for its members by the FIB (Federation of Belgian Industries). Seminars have also been arranged for the education of young designers within the framework of the textile and glass federations and the Belgian Institute of Industrial Design.
Finally, extensive use has been made of the Belgian design centre by the OBCE (Belgian Office for Foreign Trade). For example, the OBCE gave the design centre the responsibility of selecting products for a
prestige stand of Belgian textiles, which was shown in six large French fairs last year. The stand was outstanding for its unusual and impressive design, something which is rarely seen in such fairs.
The progressive expansion of design activity in industry is reflected in the growing number of exhibitors at the Belgian design centre. Most of the products shown in this section of the international review are the result of experiments in industrial design which a number of companies have undertaken in different fields, including hospital equipment, washing machines, equipment for hotels and large stores, and so on. Parallel with this development in production is a growing public interest in industrial design. The number of visitors to the Belgian design centre doubles each month, and one in every three of the visitors asks for further information. Progress in the use and appreciation of industrial design disciplines advances in every direction, and this progress can be expected to gather increasing momentum during the years to come. 11 This oscilloscope is one of a series of instruments in which great savings have been made in production by rationalising the design and manufacturing processes, leading to considerable price reductions. Designer and Maker Manufacture Belge de Lampes et de Materiel Electronique SA.
12 One piece of a new series of furniture, including a pouffe and a table, which harps back to clubroom luxury. The cushions are leather covered latex and the frame, mounted on castors, consists of panels of palisander which are located in sockets and are supported by wooden side members mounted on rubber. Designer G. Vanrijk. Maker Epeda-Beaufort.
Lydia Ferrabee, designer and freelance journalist who at one rime worked with the Conran Design Group in London. At present engaged on projects for Expo 67.
This is the decade for the designer in Canada. After struggling for years, unwanted and misunderstood, he is now overloaded with work. New design firms have been formed, and existing ones have increased as much as 10 times in 18 months by employing designers from all parts of the world. In Montreal, if you dial a standard telephone number for weather information, a sponsor may first make a plea for industrial designers for Expo '67.
The advance of the design profession started with a general boom in building. However, for the last year the scene has been dominated by preparations for the 1967 Canadian Centennial Celebration and by Expo '67. Expo '67 is the next official world exhibition (first class) to be approved by the International Bureau of Exhibitions. It will be held in Montreal throughout the summer.
The eventuality of Expo '67 lies buried beneath the loud prognostications of the pessimists and the promoters. However, there is a good chance that it will be an exceptional occasion. Participation is already planned by 58 countries (there were 42 at the Brussels exhibition), apart from Canada's own national, provincial and industrial pavilions.
Expo '67 is only part of the 1967 Canadian Centennial Celebration that provides work for designers. Over one billion dollars worth of products will go into buildings being planned for other centennial projects across Canada. The Federal government has undertaken a comprehensive programme, Design '67, to persuade designers and manufacturers to produce items -from wcs and hardware to lamps and furniture - that can be specified to fill the vast requirements of these buildings. At the same time, designers are being encouraged to design gifts and souvenirs for all the visitors to take home with them.
The Toronto design centre (DESIGN 186/72-75) has now been open about 18 months, and stock is being taken of its performance. The attendance - an average of 150 people a day- has been disappointing, even considering Toronto's relatively small and scattered population, but the number of visitors is increasing. School children come to learn about design, young married couples use the design index, and everyone liked the special exhibition, Design for Leisure. Even manufacturers have occasionally been enticed into the centre. However, a renewed effort is now being made to make the centre swing. The formidable black doors have been replaced by glass; the display system is now more flexible; the overworked secretary-receptionist has an assistant with time to answer questions; and more semisocial activities are planned, such as film evenings, and work groups for designers and architects. The few that have been held so far have been very successful.
17 This chair consists of two flexible metal shells hinged together by a unique mechanism which not only enables the back to be adjusted, but also gives it resilience. The same mechanism is used to support the arms. The metal shells are black wrinkle finished and their edges are shielded by neoprene beading; the interchangeable pads for back and seat are made of upholstered moulded methane on a wooden backing; and three different
13 Separate motors for washing, spinning and pumping are provided in this automatic washing machine, and seven different programmes cover washing requirements. Designer Michel Olyfl (graphics) and S. A. Primus. Maker S. A. Primes.
14 This chair for picnics is an example of refined design for a seemingly unimportant object. Notable details are the nylon supports for the seat, and the single moulding of the nylon backrest, which sits neatly on the aluminium frame. The seat is made of polyethylene. Designer and Maker Ets Erica.
15 A polyethylene covered steel frame is used for this display stand for wine merchants which has trays that can be adjusted for position and angle of display. There is also a Plexiglas panel which fits across the top of the stand and can be illuminated from behind. Designer Pierre Gericot. Maker
16 This trolley is intended for restaurants and contains two calor gas burners, with or without an open grill; a hot compartment for storing food, complete with containers in stainless steel; a carving surface which also has a grooved aluminium plate for draining the juice; and another compartment for keeping drinks on ice. The chief materials are stainless steel, aluminium and Formica. Designers BED, Brussels. Maker Ets Galand.
pedestal bases are available in polished chrome steel. Designer Robin Bush. Maker Canadian Office and School Furniture.
18 An example of the best in Canadian office furniture, this chair is designed for use in executive suites and expresses purity of line and construction. The base and legs are of chrome plated steel, the frame is of oiled wood and the cushions are in 4 inch foam rubber upholstered for reversible use. Design Jack R. Dixon Jr. Maker Dixon Designs.
19 Careful attention has been given to the detailing of this Originator series of chairs and desks. The chairs have legs and bases of polished chrome bar stock and are upholstered in coated or woven fabrics. The desks have polished chrome bar stock frames and finish, and tops and drawer fronts of Arborite. The exterior panels are veneered in wood. Designer Jan Kuypers. Maker Dominion
Metalware Industries Ltd.
20 and 21 An interesting range of glass fibre chairs which allows a number of variations and may be had with or without a bright chrome base. The chair is most successfu I in the version which has a solid, round glass fibre base giving it a feeling of strength and unity, above, and least successful in the wine glass version, below. Designer Ste/an Siwinski. Maker Siwinski Designs.
Tudy Sammartini, an interior designer and journalist who has worked in San Francisco and toured Australia giving lectures on industrial design.
Laura Neagle, an editorial consultant of the magazine Critica D'Arte and a member of the Societa Italiana per L'Archeologia e La Storia Delle Arti.
22 A range of children's furniture which can be grouped in various ways, or used singly as different objects: the stool, for example, can be turned up on end for use as an arm chair or as a table. When pieces are combined, they are held together by a small magnet. Designer and Maker Fulgor GmbH.
Tudy Sammartini writes: In Italy, design follows technique, and while this may seem a good thing, it often leads to bad results. Shapes and materials developed for one particular product serving one particular need, for example, are taken up for other products in ways which are often unjustified; new materials and techniques are used just because they are new.
Another factor which tends to complicate the development of Italian industrial design is the strong Italian craft tradition. Because design has only recently been given an industrial context, it is caught up in a continuous and misleading comparison between its use in crafts on the one hand and industry on the other. This uncertainty about the designer's field is increased because although the application of industrial design disciplines usually presupposes mass production, they are sometimes applied to hand made products such as specialised car bodies, which are restricted to comparatively short run production and are produced at extremely high cost. Similarly, craft products, which are usually produced in small numbers, are
sometimes taken up by industry and mass produced, and here again the industrial designer may be involved. This happens particularly in the ceramics and glass industries.
In the case of glass, industrial techniques have been introduced into the Italian tradition. The production of modular and freely assembled chandeliers, which was first introduced by Gardella and Scarpa for the Italian pavilion at the World Fair in Brussels, has been taken up by other designers. Last year, for example, Luigi Moretti designed a modular chandelier for the Stock Exchange in Montreal. It was made by Barovier and Toso of Murano, and is interesting for its shape and size as well as for its quality.
One characteristic of design discipline is that it implies a rational approach to any problem. Indeed, recent Italian products show that their designers, particularly the younger ones, are adopting a rational approach, so that despite the many cases of new techniques used for their own sake, there are products which are designed in a way that makes a true use of industrial design
techniques. The lighting equipment produced by Salviati (designed by Beth and Teff Sarasin) and by Arte Luce (designed by Albini Sarfatti and Vignelli) shows a close relationship between shape and materials which produces extremely successful results. In the furniture industry, however, the reverse seems true, although an interesting exception is the series of children's furniture designed by Hans von Klier for II Sestante. Since it started three years ago, this firm has managed to produce some extremely well designed furniture at moderate prices.
Finally, some of the most distinguished work of Italian designers has been carried out on recent Italian ocean liners, where designers have helped to refine structural shapes and have created functional and consistent interiors. Other recent work which should not be forgotten has already been shown in this magazine. It includes the Olivetti office machines designed by Ettore Sottsass (DESIGN 203/48 51), the plastics children's chair by Marco Zanusso (DESIGN 200/56), and the polyester arm chair by Angelo Mangiarotti (DESIGN 196/57).
Laura Neagle writes: The recession in Italy during the last two years has restricted the work of industrial designers. There is a standstill in the market for electrical appliances, especially television sets, radios and refrigerators, so that manufacturers have limited their production to just two or three models this year, with very few changes in design. Most of the work carried out by industrial designers has been concentrated on furniture and related fittings. Few have worked on new designs of large appliances and machinery, partly because the redesign of such items involves expensive re-tooling and research, and partly because it requires a specific technical knowledge and experience which most Italian architect/designers do not have.
The consequences which the recession has had on design were analysed during a conference held at the ADI last July on Design e Congiuntura. There was also a conference on Problemi del Design in May, motivated by an issue of Edilizia Moderna which was completely devoted to industrial design. Most of the problems facing industrial designers in Italy were considered
to be either those which concerned the kind of relationship which should be established between an industrial designer and the engineering staff of the firm which employs him, or the true meaning of such concepts as 'redesign', 'styling', and the methodology and philosophical aspects of industrial design. It seems to me that at this moment the tendency is to overemphasise the pseudo-philosophical aspects of design (with its close ties with art and aesthetics), while not paying sufficient attention to the technical, technological and practical aspects of the designer's work.
As far as creating a school of industrial design in Milan is concerned, a committee of the Fondazione Pagano is studying the various aspects of this difficult problem which is still far from being solved, partly because of lack of funds and partly because the Italian government will not recognise industrial design as a profession. This accounts for the shortage of young industrial designers in Italy today, and explains why so many Italian architects have foreign students or graduates from Ulm on their staff.
23 One of the most recent of a series of clock designs undertaken by Angelo Mangiarotti for Secticon during the past three years (see also DESIGN 173/65). This particular model is produced in two versions, one with a body in satin finished steel with a black matt dial, the other with a body in blackfinished steel with a white dial. Designer Angelo Mangiarotti. Maker Le Porte Echappement Universel.
Andre Ricard, vice president of the Agmpacion Diseno Industrial FAD and a vice president of ICSID. Has won several Delta awards for his work as an industrial designer.
24 A series of ceramic canisters and soup tureens available in matt white, brown or yellow. Designer Ambrogio Pozzi. Maker Ceramica Franco Pozzi.
25 and 27 A good deal of thought is now being given to children's furniture in Italy. These chairs show a robustness and simplicity of design which is wholly appropriate for their use. Designer Hans von Plier. Maker 11 Sestante.
26 The structure of this prefabricated weekend house consists of zinc plated steel sections; its walls are of 5« inches thick asbestos cement sandwich panels; and its roof is of polyester reinforced glass fibre sections. The total floor area is 500 sq ft. Designer Roberto Menghi. Maker IPI.
28 A new and amusing version of a clothes tree, specially designed for children. The central tube is extruded pvc, the rods are painted steel, and other elements are in high impact styrene. Designer
Though the principles of industrial design may be seen in the traditional works of the Spanish craftsmen as well as in those of pioneers such as the architect Antonio Guadi, the profession as such was only established in 1959 when the Spanish Society of Industrial Designers (ADI/FAD) was founded. This society contains all those interested in one way or another in the development and understanding of industrial design. Within the framework of its modest means - ADI/FAD has no official support - the society has organised the Delta awards for the best Spanish designs of the year. The products selected are presented in a public exhibition which attracts an average of 250,000 visitors during the two weeks' presentation.
Due to this activity, industrial design already has a meaning, not only for industrialists but also for the public. Every day more firms ask for the collaboration of a designer and his activity, once considered as a 'hobby', is now that of a dynamic profession. Most Spanish industrial designers come from the architectural field, which is why furniture and light fittings receive the most attention. But because the Spanish economy has recently been liberalised, firms generally are becoming interested in new designs completely devoid of plagiarism.
Richard Neagle. Maker Babymex SRL. 29 This crash helmet is made in two parts. The main shell of the helmet is in urtal, but there is a separate frame, made of nylon and moplen, which fits inside the shell and is adjustable for depth and size. Designer Gianfranco Frattini. Maker Societa Montecatini. 30 Plastics are used extremely well for this electric fan. The base and motor housing is in ADS and the
blades are polyethylene. Designer Guiseppe De Gotzen. Maker Lesa Costruzioni Elettromeccaniche. 31 Beer dispensers have traditionally been a subject for decorative folk art. This one, however, has a sculptural simplicity which makes it extremely appropriate for a realIy contemporary setting. Its body is painted cast aluminium. Designers Achille and Pier Giacomo Castiglioni. Maker Poretti. 32A group of interestingly shaped ceramic wine decanters (with a wine glass) which were awarded the Premio Ballardini at Facnza last year. Designer Ambrogio Pozzi. Maker Ceramica Franco Pozzi.
Heinrich Konig, honorary secretary of the Deutscher Werkbund and member of Rat fur Formgebung. At one time sales manager of the Bauhaus.
It is difficult to restrict a report on recent design trends during the last 12 months to West Germany alone, since the movement towards an international style in all spheres is widespread. Design improvements are more marked in capital goods (including technical products which are used in the home), than in non-technical consumer goods. Manufacturers have become convinced during the course of the last few years that good design contributes to better sales of technical products, no matter whether they are electrical household appliances, machine tools or road making machinery. And in all these fields, a good sense of colour is also shown.
When one comes however, to nontechnical products used mostly in the home, the situation is very different. As in a number of other countries, including Britain, there seem to be three main developments, two of which are regrettable. First, there is the revival of Victoriana, including genuine pieces as well as imitations of objects made in the middle of the last century (for example, stable lanterns, carriage lamps, early telephones, and wall papers and carpets with conventional floral patterns), all of which command high prices; second, there are the modernistic (but not modern) pieces of
35 Plastics are used for all parts of the casing of this electric fan heater. The controls are straightforward and clear. Designer and Maker AEG.
36 A chinaware set, designed mainly for hotel use, which is intended to be extremely versatile. In general, lids have been made to fit tightly and knobs and handles have been avoided whenever possible, while the overall shape ensures stability. Designer Heinz H. Engler. Maker Lorenz
37 This sun lamp can be attached to a stand (as shown), hung on a walI, or placed horizontalIy on a table. Since it also folds together rather like a handbag, it is extremely easy to carry and store. The reflectors are of sand blasted aluminium, the stand of polished or matt finished chrome. Designer Dieter Oestreich. Maker Brown Boveri.
38 The telephone receiver for use as an extension has a neat plastics housing with a push button system instead of the usual dial. Designer Gunter Kupetz. Maker Telefunken AG.
39 This pocket-sized battery powered 'notebook' can record for up to 45 minutes at a time and has a number of accessories - including a midget button hole microphone. Designer and Maker Grundig Werke GmbH.
40 The Arzberg 2200 range of tableware has had out
furniture, such as heavy chairs with profuse angular forms on rotating frames which look far too light for the weight they have to carry, and are bad from an aesthetic as well as a functional point of view. The third, admirable development is the growth of a comparatively small number of progressive firms, mostly small and medium in size, which consistently and seriously work on new concepts requiring considerable research and development. The number of these firms increases slowly but steadily, and they tend to attract young designers who have graduated from German schools of design and who may also have had experience
abroad. Despite the fact that such firms make up the vanguard of German industries, they are all doing good business. Many of the big companies in the capital goods industry like Siemens, AEG, Robert Bosch and Brown Boveri and Co (to name only a few) recognise that achieving high standards of design for technical products does not just mean putting a pleasing face on the finished object, but involves the industrial designer right from the start. He must be in on all the mechanical and human factors decisions as well as those which concern details of styling. One of the disciplines which is gaining increasing recognition in West
Germany is ergonomics. The example of some large factories which follow this philosophy, notably Braun AG, is now inspiring small and medium sized firms to follow suit.
standing success, winning several international awards. The dome shaped lids of the tea and coffee pots fit tightly so that there is no danger of the lids coming off when the pots are tipped almost on end, and the rims of the cups and bowls are projected slightly outwards to emphasise the thin body of the porcelain. Designer Heinrich Loffelhardt. Maker Arzberg und Schonwald.
41 This motor testing cabinet, which is used to check alI electrical systems on vehicles, is the result of an extensive redesign programme on the previous model, which has led to a reduction in the number of attached proof cables, a touch key switching system and a faster run down. Its compact steel cabinet also makes it easy to manoeuvre and suitable for use under difficult conditions, such as on a construction site. Designer and Maker Robert Bosch GmbH. 42 Units for multiplying and dividing, adding and subtracting, holding figures for repeated recalI and immediate use in any calculation, and decimal programming, are among the main features of this calculating machine. Direct access between the units simplifies even the most complex problem and the last printed factor or result can be obtained for use in further calculation. Designer Dieter Oestreich, Maker Diehl.
43 This hi-fi stereo record player, which has a built in pre-amplifer, is part of a range called the Wega System 3000, which includes television sets, radios, record players and loudspeakers, all based on a module and all housed in natural walnut, teak or palisander. The aim is to create a distinct unity while at the same time giving the equipment the character of high quality furniture. Designer and Maker Wega-Radion GmbH.
44 A new modular system of filing cabinet, storage compartments and working surfaces designed for offices, libraries, laboratories, etc. Features of the design include solid pedestal blocks which are easy to clean and avoid dirt traps; a smooth exterior face to all surfaces, free of knobs and handles, yet designed so that drawers may be easily pulled out; indexing cupboards to A sizes; and an identification system using either temporary or permanent adhesive labels. Desigacrs Ernst Moeckl and Reinhart Butter.
45 The Nizo FA3 8 mm zoom reflex movie camera, which has an extra wide focal length adjustment, is extremely simple to operate. An auto control selects the correct aperture on any film speed from 10 to 400 ASA; film can be shot at 12, 16, 24 or 48 frames a second; and a variable sector shutter allows fading in and out, mixes and lap dissolves.
Jens Nielsen, editor of ID and a member of the staff of the Seishabet for Industriel Formgivning.
The most important event during 1965 was the launching of awards for design sponsored by the Selskabet for industrial Formgivning SIF (Danish Society of Industrial Design). The awards consist of diplomas, and the firms which receive them earn the right to use a label in connection with the winning product. The first four awards were made during the design exhibition God lndustriform 1965, held by the SlF at the Copenhagen Trade Fair in October.
The aim of the jury which made the awards was to select products that express an honest approach to the problems
of design, rather than to promote any sort of style, be it Danish or international. The SIF is convinced that industry
will benefit in the long run through work based upon an idealistic attitude. The best qualities of Danish design are not
the result of styling, but stem from a spiritual attitude resting upon a national tradition of modesty and critical
selection. These qualities should not be allowed to succumb to the international struggle between various fashions
and design philosophies.
One of the strongholds of the Danish approach to industrial design is the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, where most
of the pioneering work on the development of design has been carried out. Professor Gunnar Billmann Petersen has
for years been running a department of graphic design as a special part of the school of architecture. The industrial
design department is now functioning regularly after several years of experiment, and the first fully trained industrial
designers have recently left the academy.
Designer and Maker Niezoldi & Kramer GmbH.
46 Two smalI chickens can be roasted in one go in this portable electric grill. Made of stainless steel, glass and plastics, the grill has a 60 minute time switch which activates the motor and heat as soon as a time is selected, while the spit swings automatically into position the moment the door is shut. A strong fresh air draught gives a crisp grill and enables chickens to be roasted in under half an hour. Designer Rido Busse and Dieter Bodack. Maker Schmidt & Co KG.
47 The Supertherm insulated jug is designed to keep drinks, poured in at boiling point, hot for 24 hours, and cold drinks fresh and cool alI day. The jug has a chromium plated brass body, a chromium plated cast zinc spout and lid, and a matt black plastics bottom and hand le. Designer Arno Kersting. Maker Taunus-Glas Gebr Moller GmbH.
48 The firm of Bang & OluTsen was among the pioneers of Danish radio engineering and has also, in recent times, paid much attention to good cabinet design. The firm aims at a very high technical quality which also mirrors the shape of its products. This tape recorder has been developed throng trout by the firm's engineering team under the leadership of E. Rorbaek Madsen. Designer and Maker Bang & Olufsen Ltd.
49 The Planocop electronic photocopying machine, together with its sister model the Printess (DESIGN 193/44), won one of the first Danish prizes for industrial design sponsored by the SIF. The Planocop was commended for its tidy and welI groomed appearance and its extremely sophisticated engineering concept: its operations, for example, are completely automatic. Designers Rolf Andersen and Jan Fragardh, in conjunction with Richard Norgaard (development engineer). Maker Skandinavisk Fotocopi.
5O These chairs are part of a dining suite which includes a circular table with a top of Greenland marble. The table and chairs have matt chromium plated steel frames, and the chair seats are of glass fibre covered in hide. Designer Pout Kjaerholm. Maker E. Kold Christensen A/S.
Anton Brulgom, managing director of the Stichting Instituut voor Industriele Vormgeving.
One of the most successful activities in the field of design promotion last year was the national conference, The Corporate Buyer, organised by the Read voor Industriele Vormgeving (the Dutch Institute of Industrial Design) and the Municipality of Amsterdam. This conference was the first real attempt to draw the attention of Dutch corporate buyers to their responsibility in setting design standards. Several speakers emphasised the necessity for buyers to place specific orders and to give manufacturers briefs that would promote design policy.
Since then, interesting developments have been taking place. The government is
showing an increasing awareness of the importance of industrial design, and the design of the Rotterdam underground railway and of the new buses for Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht and The Hague has been given special attention. An important development was that Dutch designers realised the need to reconsider and discuss what kind of education is most suitable for would-be designers. The Federation of Applied Artists held a conference on the subject, which was attended by many designers. This general interest may also have been caused by the practical experiences of a
number of young designers who recently finished their training and have found it unsatisfactory.
Design promotion on a European scale was helped by two important foreign exhibitions in the design centre in Amsterdam: a Belgian and a British collection, chosen by the design organisations of the two respective countries. The Dutch public's exceptional interest in foreign design raises hope for more exhibitions of this kind, while one also hopes that a number of Dutch exhibitions will be shown abroad.
A distinct trend in the Netherlands is the growing need of the consumer to receive guidance in the field of quality and design. An increasing number of visitors to the design centre (there were about 150,000 in 1965), the growing requests for excursions and lectures, and the interest shown by educationists, are all symptoms of this trend. The design centre tries to meet these demands by directing its visual information to the consumer. In 1966, this policy will result in a new style of presentation in the design centre's exhibitions, and visitors will be stimulated to form their own judgement about what they see.
The general attention given to good design and modern quality, however, does not yet have the stimulating effect on industrial activities which might have been expected. In spite of the demand, very few really new designs were introduced last year. We are still hoping that the growing power of discrimination shown by the general public will stimulate industry to integrate good design in its products.
51 This is a prototype of a bus which is being developed for Holland's four main cities. By locating the engine behind the rear axle, it has been possible to lower the floor and so ease entry and exit. Designers W. Rietveld and B. V. Van den Bergh. Make Hainje-Werkspoor (using units from Leyland).
52 A considerable effort has been made to minimise the actual (and apparent) depth of this oil convection heater. Like a gas fire, the ceramic grille has a rich, warm orange colour when in use and gives off radiant heataswellas supplying warm air through the ducts. Designer CEI-Raymond Loewy. Maker The Dutch Engineering Laboratory.
53 A compact, unit type of construction makes this Oce 161 photocopier a good looking machine which is extremely easy to use. Designer and Maker Chemische Fabrick L. van dcr Grinten NV. s4 This small easy chair has a stretch fabric upholstery on latex foam supported by two wooden frames whose only join is at the base of the chair. Designer Pierre Paulin. Maker Artifort.
55 The deep buttoning of the seat and back to this settee recalls the luxurious ease of an Edwardian smoke room, and even with its chrome steel legs, it would not look out of place in such a setting. The upholstery is Finished in glove leather. Designer Pierre Paulin. Maker Artifort.
56 This upholstered unit chair has a beech frame painted red. It is, in fact, a domestic version of a contract chair which has a metal frame like the two other seats shown in this review, it shows the good use being made of foreign designers by a country already notable for its own furniture. Designer
International review Yugoslavia
Miroslav Fruht, secretary of the Federation of Artists and Applied Arts of Yugoslavia.
In Yugoslavia's social and economic development, industrial design represents a new era, and the problem of raising design standards in industry has received more organised attention in recent years.
After fulfilling the basic needs of the market during the years immediately after the war, the improvements in consumer tastes and the rise in living standards have led to greater attention being paid to user needs in the new products of Yugoslav industry. At the same time, the reduction in foreign licensing arrangements has thrown the initiative for product development into the hands of Yugoslav manufacturers.
Within the last year, an increase in production and exports has resulted in a growing demand for the services of industrial designers. The new economic reforms which are in progress impose the need for modernising production, and for competition in international markets. In such a situation, more and more industries have become conscious that design can play an important role, and the machine tools and electronic industries, especially, have shown positive results. They now employ designers for both product development and research projects.
Manufacturers of consumer goods have also begun to pay attention to good design. Domestic cookers, refrigerators and washing machines have been given new and original forms. Obod at Cetinje, Phobeds at Cacak and others are now co-operating with qualified designers. The activities of the Family and Household Board have also been important, and its competition for children's and school furniture, in which well known designers and architects participated, has given the furniture industry qualitative models. The board, in conjunction with the Ministry of Education, is in the course of arranging for the award winning entries in the school furniture section of the competition to be adopted for use in all schools throughout the country.
Such results in the field of industrial design were augmented by the Centre of Industrial Design, which began its work last year in Zagreb. Detailed analysis of all important requests from industry has shown that it is necessary to establish an institute which will scientifically and professionally prepare designs and do all the services related to them. At the same time, the Zagreb centre has organised a documentation service along the lines of that provided by the ColD in London. Although the Zagreb centre has little to show for its first year's work, it is expected that the new economic reforms will ensure that industry sends more and more requests for help to the centre, and receives from the centre new designs for its products.
The establishment of a school of industrial design, which was suggested several years ago, has so far had no concrete results. However, a school for designer-technicians has been founded in Belgrade and its graduates will eventually join the staffs of independent and highly educated designers.
Geoffrey D. Harcourt. Maker Artifort.
57 This desk instrument is a good example of Yugoslav redesign. The panel of the old model, which was introduced in 1958, looks clumsy and old fashioned in comparison to the new version produced last year. Designer Davorin Savnik. Maker Iskra.
58 A very straightforward casing using the minimum of components gives this microphone an extremely businesslike look. It won a gold medal at the First Biennale of Industrial Design, he Id just over a year ago. Designer Marko Turk. Maker EAL.
59 Good use is made of metal and plastics in the casing for this electric drill. The pistol handle at the end is well shaped for the fingers and thumb, while the rubber handle at the front provides a good grip which is also warm to touch. Designer Albert Kastelec. Maker Iskra. 60 This transistor radio and record player shows the influence of certain western styling trends of a few years ago. Designer and Maker The Electronic
Industry. 61 One of the designs shown at the recent Yugoslav exhibition at the LGA Centrum Form in Stuttgart was this short wave receiver. Like many Yugoslav instruments, it has a straightforward housing whose somewhat austere form is broken and enlivened by the graphics used for the controls and nameplate. Designer Davorin Savoik. Maker Ishra. 62 These desks and chairs won first prize in the
competition for school furniture organised by the Family and Household Board, and will soon become standard equipment throughout Yugoslavia. Designer Bernardo Bernardi. Maker Smreka. 63 66 A range of chairs, benches and tables which use laminated wooden seats, backs, table tops and metal frames, and are designed on a knockdown basis. The seats in series are made to a module and can be used for halls, cinemas and so on. These
Ryszard Bojar, secretary general of the Stowarzysenie Projoktantow Form Przemyslowych. In 1960/61 a UNESCO scholarship enabled him to study design offices in the US.
1965 was a significant year for industrial design in Poland. Two design exhibitions were on display in Warsaw-from Denmark and Norway-and since Finland showed its designs in 1963, we have had a comprehensive example of how one group of countries makes the best use of the creative talent and national resources available to it.
The exhibition organised by the Stowarzysenie Projektantow Form Przemyslowych (the Polish Institute of Industrial Design). at the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of Poland, Plastic Arts in the Industry, was held in Wroclaw together with a conference on the design organisation and
co-operation of industrial designers with mechanical engineers. A new design office was also established in the electronics industry. This forms a centre of industrial design concerned with both design management and research in the field of electronic equipment for mass consumption -television, radio, tape recorders, and so on. The design office will supply the designers working in particular factories, or as freelance consultants, with product planning guidance, development information and market research data, and will be responsible for standardising components such as switches, knobs, scales, control devices,
designs are typical of the adventurous furniture now comingfrom Vugoslavia. Designer Pavoo Laubert. Maker Alla.
etc. It will also organise industrial design training programmes for designers, electronic engineers and industrial managers.
Another development was the assignment of an industrial design adviser to the Board of Automatic Industries. In this way, a broad industrial design programme can be provided for professional and investment goods such as computers, measuring instruments and control apparatus.
The Institute of Industrial Design is engaged on two big projects at the moment, one of which is to develop standard school equipment for the Ministry of Education. The other, a complex development by the research and design department of the institute, has been the establishment of components for office furniture, undertaken for the department of the office labour organisation of the Ministry of Finance. The components were completed and displayed for public approval at exhibition in Warsaw.
Consumer products are also receiving careful attention. A new organisation for consumer protection has just been established under the name Opinia. This covers consumer needs as a market research institution, and its main activity is to evaluate goods on the market by means of consumer tests and enquiries. Another opportunity for
evaluating consumer products was provided by the Autumn Poznan National Fair, which displayed the latest consumer goods proposed for retail sale this year.
The Stowarzysenie Projoktant6w Form Przemyslowych was affiliated as a professional member of ICSID during its general assembly in Vienna last autumn. The logo of the SPFP is taken from the Morse telegraphic code known as "trait d'union" - a unitive sign. It thus associates the idea of a community - a community of creative effort. The association was formed in 1961 as an exploratory committee and in March 1963 achieved official status.
66 A set of elements for standard office furniture. Flat panels of plastics covered chipboard on a steel structure can be assembled in a variety of ways and are designed for cheap manufacture. Designers Maria Bialowna, Ryszard Bojar, Edward Kurkowski, Zdzislaw Wroblewski (of the Warsaw Institute of Industrial Design) for the Minisf ry of Finance.
67 A series of enamel led metal pans to serve both the kitchen and table. They are specially shaped to absorb heat in the most efficient way possible, and are designed for economic storage and transport. Designer Jadwiga Pindel. Maker Fabryha Naczyn Emaliowanych.
68 This redesign of a foundry riddle is an example of graduate work carried out at the industrial design faculty at Krakow University. Designer Janusz Krawecki.
69 An epidiascope which can also be used for slide projection. Designer Olgierd Ruthowski. Maker Lodzkie Zaklady Kinotechniczne Lodz.
70 The aim of the redesign of this truck, carried out by the Institute of Industrial Design at Warsaw, was to provide a more comfortable driver's compartment and space for two passengers, more convenient access to the engine, more economical manufacturing processes and a means of fitting the
Malcolm Brookes, a freelance journalist, former assistant editor of DESIGN and until recently editor-in-chief of the American magazine Industrial Design.
Three years ago, the American design theme for the year was 'honesty and integrity'. Two years ago it was 'more fun in product design'. In 1965, it was 'beautify America'. The beauty kick, launched from the highest levels with a presidential conference, is catching on fast. The conferees agreed that, for a start, the massive automobile junk yards ought to be hidden behind hedges so that they cannot be seen from the inter-city expressways, and that tulips (and other plants) ought to be planted in the median dividers between roadways. I n one address to the nation, the President argued that a hideous visual environment contributed to a high crime rate, broken homes, and so on.
This is all excellent stuff, and though it may appear peculiar to European eyes, the beauty theme is not to be dismissed lightly. No one will deny that it is a step in the right direction to create a public awareness of the ghastly visual environment of many American cities, and one way to do it is to start talking about tulips and trees. Congress apportioned $63 million to a 'beautifying America' budget, to be used by city and state authorities for landscaping, outdoor advertising control, and the like.
Put this new theme together with the
overall dimensions of the back of the truck to a system of modular loading. Designers A. Hasten, M. Naruszewicz, J. Pawlowski, St. Soszynski. Maker Fabryha Samochodow Ciezarowych Starachowice.
emphasis on culture - more than 150 cultural centres are being built now in the US, to be finished in a couple of years - and you can see that there is a growing nationwide awareness of the living and fine arts which could easily be made to influence product and graphic design standards overnight: a fallout, if you like, of the revitalisation of architectural design and city planning.
Whereas attempts have only recently been made to stimulate public awareness of the poor visual environment in many cities, some public services, public utilities and certain of the giant corporations have shown an awareness of civic problems through design programmes. San Francisco, for instance, is investing aboutS1 billion in a gigantic mass transit project for its metropolitan area. The transit authority has appointed architectural and design controllers for the project, and Sundberg-Ferrar, an eminent mid-west design office, has undertaken product design of the proposed car sets, supplying the authority with full scale prototypes of its design (a mere S2S0,000 contract). Sundberg-Ferrar has also been retained to control all the graphic design of this system, station hardware, vending machines for fare collection, etc. This is not intended to be a sales pitch for Sundberg-Ferrar, but to
indicate the totality of approach to design which certain civic authorities are undertaking. (I cannot imagine this happening in New York City, however.)
On the corporation level, an exemplar is the work of Peter Muller Munk for US Steel. Muller Munk has completed excellent work on prototype electricity substations, designed pylons and water towers, and developed ideas for mass transit equipment. (In the case of transport equipment, however, picking out one designer is hardly fair to the rest as there is scarcely an office you can mention which has not put in some time on a mass transit project.) The larger corporations
are continually investing in well designed speculative projects of this type, either to create new markets or to stimulate old ones, and here we have many fine examples of the designer contributing to the company marketing facilities - certainly not something to be ashamed of, the way it is competently undertaken in the US.
On a parochial level we can continue to poke stylistic fun at much of the design for the consumer: cookers are as kooky as ever, refrigerators are now printed in pop art, radio and tv are entering the Spanish Colonial era, the Cadillac Vee still predominates on the sides of toasters, and so on. Automobiles apart, there is a noticeable restraint in the use of applied decoration, however. This has been obvious in the design of capital goods for some years - IBM computers, Honeywell computers (I think they are now out-lBMing IBM for design), business machines (Dashew, Xerox, for example), and the electronics field in general (Friden, Hewlett-Packard, Sanborn, Beckman, Hughes, and many others) where there is a true 'machine aesthetic' in modern designs.
The US auto continues to be a paradoxical mixture of good and evil. Styling has again taken a turn for the worse, after signs of some control a couple of years back. While exterior decoration is now passe, the watch word in Detroit is 'sculpting'. Henry Moore had better develop another style if he wishes to maintain a market, for soon Detroit will be putting 10 million Moores a year on sale replete with holes for the wind to blow tunes through. Human engineering ? Don't make me laugh. And yet, here is another of these paradoxes; if you read into human engineering the need to provide the customer with choice, no one can outdo Detroit. Choice is fantastic: seating, colours, power assist devices, radio, tv, record players, tape recorders, engine sizes, air
71 The Trimline telephone is one of a number of new telephone designs aimed at providing receivers for different settings. The compact size of the telephone and its light weight make it easy to use in a reclining position, and it is more decorative and less bulky than the traditional receiver. Designers Bell Telephone Laboratories in collaboration with Henry Dreyfuss. Maker The American Telephone and Telegraph Co.
72 This video trainer, which won an IDSA Certif cafe of Design Merit in October, is a complete closed circuit television studio housed in a compact mobile cabinet. It will accept signals from an external source, from its own camera and microphone, or from a television antenna, and can be used for recording programme material, taping lectures, etc. Designer and Maker Amplex Corporation.
73 Swinger model 20, the latest and cheapest in the series of automatic cameras developed by Polaroid. The Swinger model 20 uses Polaroid film which provides 'instant' development of a single print from each exposure, available within 15 seconds of the picture being taken, and incorporates an automatic exposure device controlled by an exposure knob which doubles up as the shutter release. There is also a built in flash
conditioners, dehumidifiers, tyre designs (and I really mean stylistic designs of tread), seat belts of all shapes and sizes (belts only, no shoulder harnesses yet), windscreen washers; you name it, they have it at a very small price. And as far as safety goes, the Federal and State Governments are having a blast on steering columns that rocket back into the driver during collision, and noxious exhaust fumes, while supporting campaigns for heavy duty seat belt anchorages and shoulder restraints for front passengers, safety glass in windows, firmer seat anchorages, padded dash and sun visors, glare resistant finishes on the dash,
recessed dash instruments and knobs, dual brake systems, back-up lights, standard bumper heights - there are 17 things in all that the Governments want to see done on the 1967 cars. Industry is being encouraged to do the work not by legislation but through an insistence that the vehicles bought by state and federal officials have these features. This looks very well for the motorists next year: all we want now is interior stylists to become aware of the need for a certain degree of rationality in design.
Finally, now that the two design societies have merged into the Industrial Designers
Society of America, there is a good chance that a concerted push in the right direction now could do wonders to design awareness in industry- bearing in mind all the other programmes that are under way. The Industrial Designers Education Association is going to affiliate with the new body; and this is badly needed, for design education in America is almost as weak as it is in England. There is great potential in this new conglomeration of designers. The late sixties are going to see remarkable things happening in America.
for the camera, and a distance scale for setting the aperture accurately when a flash is used. Designer Henry Dreyfuss. Maker The Polaroid Corporation.
74 Although a lot of work has been done on individual items for an of flee, almost no thought has been given to the of flee as a complete environment in which a man must not only sit at a desk, but also move around, hold impromptu conversations, relax between bouts of intensive work, and generalIy be able to think in a space which imposes the least possible restrictions on his mental and physical well being. Herman Millers Action Ounce is an attempt to do this. The furniture is designed to allow a variety of postures and working methods, and the space around it is intended to allow the maximum amount of flexibility, both in the relationship between individual items and the people who will use them. A number of other ideas have also been built into the office, such as the belief, for example, that communication is fostered by emphasising the contents of papers, memoranda, etc. rather than their amount, and that this can best be done by encouraging a horizontal use of papers and inhibiting vertical accumulations. Designer George Nelson (from data provided by Robert Propst). Maker Herman Miller Inc.
75 The Executary 224 dictating unit, which weighs only 28 oz and is 7 inches long, incorporates a number of features including a completely transistorised amplifier, built-in microphone, instant scanning, erasion of errors at a flick of a switch, and a battery life indicator. There is also a scale to locate positions on the 10 minute magnetic tapes used for the unit, and an index for secretarial instructions. Designer Ehot Noyes and Associates. Maker International Business Machines Corporation.
76 A view of the display of American industrial products, one of a series designed as a 'package' for the US Department of Commerce. It won the Radio Barcelona Gold Medal Award at the International Samples Fair in Barcelona last year. The display stands, dominated by giant 'USA' symbols in purple on blue, were composed of cubicles, each of which had an illuminated panel and the company's logo or symbol, and were lit by thin fluorescent tubes fitted into roof grids which did not require extra baffling. In the words of the designer, "The application of modular design and existing standardised components enabled us to create a flexible concept that was highly adaptable to various sites and situations. At the same time, the technique offered reductions in construction costs and time." Designer Walter Dorwin Teague Associates.
77 Designed as a subsystem of the Series 200 computer equipment, this data station is a highly
Alf Boe, member of the council of the Norwegian design centre and president of the Landsforbundet Norsk srukskunst (the Norwegian Society for Arts and Crafts and Industrial Design).
The most interesting development in Norwegian industrial design is, it seems, taking place outside the fields where design has been consciously cultivated over the years. While furniture designers seem to be happily exploiting conventionalised palisander versions of 'Scandinavian Modern' for outside use, which at the moment give steadily mounting returns in the export market, producers of plastics are turning out really attractive containers,
Fish crates and similar objects of a strictly utilitarian nature. Good materials, clean shapes and a sensible layout seem on the whole to occupy the minds of designers and producers in a widening field of industries outside the consumer goods' category more, in fact, than they did only a year or two ago.
In the field of consumer goods, definite trends are at present difficult to find; but despite what has already been said of the furniture industry, signs of change may be noted in a new appraisal of plain materials treated in a straightforward manner- a reaction against what I would call "sitting room genteelness". Certain new models in porcelain and stoneware underline a similar trend towards a re-appraisal of what William Morris might have termed "a work-a-day simplicity", in which informality of shape is combined at times with considerable refinement of colour. Serious work is also being carried on by textile producers, who have recently heightened their colour schemes without becoming garish, and cultivated the textural effects of their materials.
The impact of Norway's new design centre in Oslo is making itself felt, in spite of the expert mental character of its exhibition policy during the first trial period of its existence
(DESIGN 196/58-59). Certain adjustments in the methods of pre-selection for exhibitions are being contemplated by the administration, together with a more consistent stressing of quality products in the mounting of exhibition goods.
Finally, note should be taken of the activities of the newly reorganised Norwegian Society of Arts and Crafts and Industrial Design. Basing its membership on a wide selection of designers', producers' end consumers' associations, as well as on individual firms, it has increased the facilities for contact between groups, and is at present endeavouring to stimulate an internal discussion of basic principles and values, in order to formulate in some detail something like a manifesto to guide its own future activities. Being a completely independent, non-profit making and idealistic organisation, its strengthening may well prove of some consequence to future development.
79 Current trends in Scandinavian furniture are towards a simplicity of line and finish, admirably illustrated by these chairs with a stool. I he wood is Norwegian fir, pinned and glued and protected by a plastics varnish, and the seats and back are canvas, doubled over and lined with polyester. Designer Rastad and Relling. Maker Mysen Mobelindustri.
modular grouping of devices to prepare, transmit and receive data over telephone lines to and from a romotely located central computer. A wide variety of data media such as paper tape, punched cards, and teletype print may be handled by the system, with up to five devices capable of being handled by a central electronics unit. The design objectives included a common framing concept to house the various mechanisms; great flexibilityof arrangement for varying floor space requirements; simplicity of cover construction to minimise cost and the number of different parts; and a coordinated location of controls. The data station won the Associated Industries of Massachusetts 1965 product design competition. Designer and Maker Honeywell Inc.
78 The increasing emphasis by American car designers on sculptural forms is shown by Oldsmobile's Toronado, which was introduced only a few months ago. It represents a designer's attempt to make a bold statement, avoiding the many compromises which follow the intervention of Detroit's redesign committees. Besides its bold styling, the Toronado introduces front wheel drive and a new suspension, transmission and engine. It wilI probably set the pace for US auto design for some time to come. Designer and Maker Oldsmobile Division of General Motors.
30 There seem to be few industries in which plastics does not have some usefuI contribution to make. Here it is used for fish crates. Among its advantages over the traditionai material - wood are ease of stacking, ease of maintenance, and, of course, lightness. Designer and Maker Svein Stromberg et Co A/S. 31 The frame of this chair is bent, laminated oak, the upholstery fabric on latex foam. The curves of the
wood create an interesting pattern as well as acting as supports for the back and sides by pinning them together in an ingenious way. Designer Sven Dsythe. Maker More Lenestolfabrik. 32 A neat and extremely satisfactory alternative to the spring clip usually used to fasten rope to a ring. The material is stainless steel. Designer and Maker Frekhaug Metallstraperi A/S. 33 A combination of materials is used for this tape
recorder - wood for the cabinet, pressed metal for the table, and plastics for the lid. It provides an overal I desig n concept which is strong and compact, although the layout of the controls seems rather untidy. Designer and Maker Tandbergs Radiofabrikk A/S. 34 A series of green glazed, fireproof porcelain pots with stainless steel handles which are intended for restaurants and hotels as welI as for domestic use.
Eugen Gomringer, managing director of the Schweizerischer Werkbund SWB in Zurich
At the end of 1964, the management of the Swiss Werkbund in Zurich prepared plans for a Swiss design centre to be opened in Zurich. The ColD's Design Centre in London was to be the model, and it was visited in the summer of 1964 so that its organisation could be studied thoroughly. Although 43 Swiss firms and seven foreign firms soon afterwards said they were basically interested in the Swiss design project (all the firms had been specially selected), the Swiss
Werkbund decided last February that it could not bear the financial risk attached to an enterprise of this nature. The plan has therefore been shelved until another financial platform can be found for the design centre.
The most important event in the Swiss industrial design calendar is Die Gute Form, the exhibition and awards ceremony which takes place annually at the Basle Samples Fair. We often wish the products did not have to be selected during the fair, but since the Werkbund wants to talk to the manufacturers and their representatives, the fair is not an unsuitable place in which to do it.
As a display of the previous year's award winning designs is mounted in one of the halls, there is a considerable cross-section of manufacturers' end consumers) opinions present during the 10 days of the fair. The jury is composed of representatives of the Swiss Werkbund, the Basle Samples Fair and four foreign judges. Robert Gutman has been Britain's representative for many years. The jury works in groups which visit their allotted stands over a period of three days. The Die Gute Form exhibition and awards ceremony has been a regular event since1953. Last year 162 products representing 90 firms were awarded the Die Gute Form label.
Other interesting activities are the courses which the Werkbund either organises itself or to which it sends delegates as lecturers. One such is the two- to three-day course for school teachers at the State Technical College in Zurich. At these further education courses for teachers, the problems of industrial design, the difference between 'modem' end 'modernistic', and the development of the home are discussed. On average, about 80 teachers attend the course. The Werkbund is convinced that any education relating to the problems of industrial design must begin with those who educate our children.
The competition for new or improved products organised annually by the Zurich store Globus is well known and is something which Werkbund could copy. It must be said, however, that only a few Swiss firms have so far bothered to employ an industrial designer permanently or on a consultant basis. There is, nevertheless, a fairly large number of well designed products in Switzerland, though they are only a small proportion of the total number of goods available. Therma Co in Schwanden is a good example of a firm which produces whole ranges of well designed models, but this is rare. In other words, there is still a great deal of work left for the Swiss Werkbund to do.
Designer Eystein Sandnes. Maker Porsgrunds Porselacosfabrik
85 The function and method of construction of this hydraulic winch is enhanced by the honesty of its housing and the lack of any unnecessary embelIishments. Designer and Maker A/S Hydraulic.
86 A great deal of care is now going into the overall design of scientific equipment. This chemical balance has a simple, well defined casing, and neat controls. Designer and MakerMettler lnstrumente AG.
87 Plastics are slowly being accepted instead of metal castings for use on heavy, industrial equipment. Here plastics is used for a radial valve. Designer and Maker H. Brechhubl.
88 The cast iron housing of this electric boiler is an example of straight forward and strictly functional design in a field where most products still look as if they have a nineteenth century origin. Designer and Maker Zent AG
89 A pleasantly detailed version of the conventional telephone receiver, even though the attempt to relate the push buttons to the rest of the design does not seem completely successful. Designer M. Meter. Maker Ghr. Gfeller AG.
Bernard Orna, a journalist, is a frequent visitor to Czechoslovakia. Author of Czechoslovakia: New Standards In the Making (DESIGN 134/54-58).
The international trade fair at Brno, in Czechoslovakia, which takes place each September and concentrates on machinery, gives a glimpse of Czechoslovak industrial design in some fields besides heavy engineering - electrical and cine equipment, for instance. And its terms of reference do not exclude an everwider coverage: the 1964 fair introduced an exhibition of Czechoslovak applied arts, glass, ceramics and furniture, which is likely to be repeated in the future.
Brno 1965 showed the work of the country's design consultants on electric locomotives, fork-lift trucks, machine tools, 8mm cameras and other products of light industry such as a telephone handset, a tape recorder and an electrocardiograph. The range is fairly extensive and is indicative of the manner in which the use of designers is increasing. In connection with machine tools, a point was made of the advantages of better placed and shaped controls and of properly considered colouring. Tests with colours are still under way, and standards are to be set up with the help of the Academy of Sciences.
The movement towards developing new designs, which owes much to Professor Zdenek Kovar, has thus gathered momentum. His own contribution continues, along with
90 The jazzy frills common to some British and American electrical equipment are absent in that produced in Eastern Europe. In this two-speed tape recorder, the two main colours of the plastics casing are sufficient decoration, the control buttons relate welI to the general shape of the instrument, and the graphics are, as always, neat and unpretentious. Designer B. Mira. Maker Tesla.
91 A considerable amount of attention is now being given to the design of telephones. This handset in plastics is small, simple and lightweight. Designer B. Mira. Maker Tesla.
92 In the past, portable electrocardiographs have usually been heavy and clumsy pieces of equipment. This model, however, is compact enough to be carried around in a small case, while its controls and general appearance have been refined so that it is not only easy to use, but avoids the clinical look common to most medical apparatus. Since the electrocardiograph may be used in a patient's home this is an important point. Designers F. Jelinek and R. Hladky. Maker Chirana.
93 The type 32E six axle electric locomotive designed for passenger and freight haulage has bodywork of reinforced plastics on a steel frame, with side wall sections built up as single units. The length of the locomotive over bumpers is 78 ft 9 inches; its
his duties as head of the industrial design studio of the College of Applied Arts. His studio is at Gottwaldov, not far from Brno, where contacts with technical education and industry are steadily maintained. He has extended the attention paid to the design of durable consumer goods, but the main concern is still with tools and machinery.
Both Professor Kovar and designers in Prague confirm that their services are in great demand. They are occupied with more projects than before, encouraged by the growing recognition that design is as important as materials and finish, and by manufacturers' increasing concern with the quality of their products. A stimulus has also been given by the ColD's exhibition of British design, shown in Prague and Bratislava at at the end of last year.
The advisory committees set up to consider designs, whose members are drawn from the relevant professional associations, pursue an exacting but invaluable task vis-...-vis good standards. Progress is uneven, however: while new designs have been appearing in the fields of metalware, ceramics and packaging, besides those already mentioned, there is little that is interesting in lighting, and furniture has marked time during 1964-5.
The relative merits of different forms of design practice are being debated: should designers be employed as staff by industry? should they work as specialist consultants or general consultants? The tendency is to favour the last two arrangements. Professor Kov...r, is also urging the creation of a centre through which designers could keep in touch, and of a materials research station. There is a further suggestion for a council to co-ordinate the activities of the Institute of Home and Fashion Design (UBOK), industrial studios and so on.
adhesive weight 124 tons; and its top speed 100 mph. Designer Otakar Diblik. Maker V. 1. Lenin Works (Skoda).
93 A good example of Czechoslovak machine tools, this semi-automatic bobbing has clean lines, well placed controls and a neatly designed legend plate. Designer S. Kral. Maker Ros.
94 This redesign of a light tractor for use in Czechoslovakia's mountain pastoral regions has a body of metal and reinforced plastics. Besides greatly improving the overalI shape and resolving some of the untidiness of the previous design, care has been taken to improve the controls of the new tractor and its ease of maintenance. Designer Zdenek Kovai. Maker Agrostrog.
95 A straightforward but elegant design for an aluminium jug. It has a plastics handle, and is intended for use with coffee, tea or milk. Designer B. Duda.
96 A carefuI ergonomic study was carried out for the design of these tailor's cutting out scissors, which are made in metal and are 12 inches long Designer Miroslav Klima. Maker Trikota.
Suketaro Tsukamoto, managing director of the Osaka Design House Has had business experience in the Toyota Cotton Mills in Shanghai and is a graduate of the Mitsui College in Peking.
The importance of industrial design in Japan is reflected by the number of students who receive a design education at technical college, university and high school. More than 1,000 students completed a university course in design last year, as well as 500 students from technical colleges. In addition, about 30 high schools include some form of design training in their curricula.
More than half of the graduates who work in Japanese industry do so as staff designers. Their influence is most clearly seen in the optical and electrical industries, which have achieved a world wide reputation for modern design. There are also, however, moves by industrial designers to achieve a harmony between the modern technological industries and Japanese craft traditions.
Another trend now taking place in Japan concerns the increasing interest which is being taken in the design of public facilities. This was fostered by the campaign for high standards of graphic design for the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 1964; the opening of the new Tokaido line and the re-development plans for a number of cities; and less grandiose but equally interesting schemes such as the competition which was held for the design of litter bins in Osaka.
Two big design conferences were held last year. One, in Tokyo, was under the auspices of JIDA (the Japanese Industrial Design Association) in which more than 1,000 delegates took part. The main theme was The Duty of the Industrial Designer Today. The second conference took place in Osaka under the auspices of the Osaka Design House, and had as its principal theme Design and the Human Environment. Various other problems of design were also discussed, as well as plans for the World Fair which is being held in Osaka in 1970.
97 A good balance and sense of proportion is achieved between the different parts of this pendant lamp. The shade is in aluminium and the cylinder above in white polyethylene. Designer and Maker Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd.
98 The handle of this 8mm movie camera serves as the battery case and can be folded forward when not in use, when it then protects the lens against damage. The camera also has a manually operated zoom lens and cartridge loading for film. Its case, in grey and dark blue, is of cast aluminium. Designer and Maker Minolta Camera Co Ltd.
99 This 6P-126 six inch television set is claimed to be the smallest in the world. Using a completely transistorised vhf tuner, it is nevertheless capable of picking Up weak signals and producing a clear picture with sharp contrast; the contrast is, in fact, increased by having a smoked filter in conjunction with the tube. The tv can be run from a battery or the mains; has an attachment for earphones; and can be fitted with a sun visor when used out of doors. Designer and Maker Mitsubishi Electric Corp.